Comments from delegates of the Bridging Ages Conference in Ngurunit 26-29 August 2014
I must admit that the conference gave me the experience of a life time as an individual. The humour. Ideas. And a community formed from nations.
The conference built confidence in many ways.
Finally. May I take this opportunity to thank all of you who came to the Ngurunit conference. Your support was immense. Thank you and thank you again.
Marsabit County Government
It was great to mix with many cultures and share experiences. Coming from a similar background, I have realized that our cultures is a rich heritage that can be used to improve the lives of our people. As an educationist, it is possible to make learning of mathematics practical and interesting using the local environmental resources.
My take home, don't look far, appreciate what you have and improve for modernity.
County Director of Education
The forum was amazing. We have learnt a lot like knowing that every site has a history behind it, Time Travel and teaching mathematics and history using culture! The interaction with people from all over the world was great. However, my suggestion is that lets partner and do more on culture especially on research and documentation of historical sites.
It’s worth to have similar groups like BANK Ngurunitin in other centres within our county.
Chief officer for culture and social services
1. It was truly an experience of a lifetime. I am so happy that I got the opportunity to participate. Not only did I learn more about the conference topic – education and community building – and see what it can mean in a real setting (Ngurunit made an excellent case study), I also got to know a lot of interesting, kind and passionate people and had a really good time.
2. I will definitely think more about how to connect the museum with the local community and how to use cultural heritage in a way that benefit society, for example in relation to issues concerning the environment and sustainability.
3. I think it was good for all of us “outsiders” to get a deeper understanding of the lifestyle and living conditions in that part of the world. It certainly gave me a new perspective on life.
Carolina Jonsson Malm
Kalmar läns museum
It was such a wonderful time together in Ngurunit.It was quite amazing that people from different nations with different cultures quickly agreed, united and put brains together to address the theme of the conference. What a successful memorable conference!
Applause to the organizers. Thank you thank you thank you.
This to me means that any challenge can be addressed and solutions got no matter where and by whom.
I am surely a transformed person now. I am thinking differently about the challenges around me/my community/ school/nation.
It is my prayer that we remain in touch, form a task force team that can always come together and discuss issues geared to solutions whenever need arises no matter where.
I will always treasure that time l was in Ngurunit and your company my dear friends.
Nakiwogo Primary School
This is my first time of attending Bridging Ages Conference and I have gained a lot from you people who have been members of Bridging Ages for long time.
My personal experiences of the conference are as follows:
1. It brings together different people from all over the world to share other peoples culture and heritage.
2. Socialization: It is a forum where we interact with each other and make friends.
3. Community Building :I experience how community can come together to make their environment a better place to stay.
4. Entertainment: The cultural dances performed by different Nations as a form Entertaining the Audience.
What will I take home and implement?
I will take home Time Travel to my country as I realized that Time Travel is a major tool in community building. I have already discussed with my organization. The Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria and they have given me the support to form a Bridging Ages Association in my community with nuclear base in my organization.
The Bridging Ages Northern Kenya (BANK) has done a wonderful job by successfully hosting the conference and making all of us happy all the time.
I hope to visit Ngurunit with my family in the near future.
I sincerely thank Mr. Ebbe, Steven Labarakwe and all BANK members for the wonderful work they have done to see to the success of the conference.
God Bless you all.
Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
1. Already in advance I had very positive expectation of the conference, which has now surpassed all my expectations. I think of course about a certain amount of adventure and that the experience gives both knowledge and skills when it contains some hardships. The conference is different from all other conferences I've been to, the reception of the locals and the site's very special character. This obvious and physical hardship gave weight to the content as well. It was truly a "once in a lifetime" - moment. Without electricity and mobile networks. A platform for all the meetings that I did. I got the chance to socialize with people from other countries and cultures in a relaxed way.
2. The importance of international contacts and networks. How great and rewarding it is to go away and experience the real meetings. I see Bridging Ages and Kalmar County Museum as two open organizations that create exchanges and experiences that are invaluable (for you and for Sweden). Theory, method and practice on a global / international level. An inspiration that I want more of. Of international exchanges in my life and also in my organization.
3. Thanks for giving me the chance to take part! It has been overwhelming to meet Africa and all participants. Personally, I love to join in this context even more. What is going on in South Africa in February? Sounds interesting! We have some history of notable events relating to South Africa.
Regards from Tore Danielsson
Swedish Exhibition Agency
My personal experience on the Bridging Ages International Conference: The organizational skills and structures, teamwork and commitment to ensure success of an international conference in a remote setting was beyond my expectations. Diversity of cultures, languages and races is an asset in building both local and international communities.
My take home for implementation: The idea of integrating the local community and the county governance as stakeholders in academic forums is a point to note.
Suggestion: A publication inform of a book on this conference would be a better idea
The Ngurunit Bridging Ages International conference was indeed a bridge to bring to the limelight the potentials of a near non modern environment. A big applaus to Ebbe, Lena, Labarakwe and all BANK members. I appreciate each and every little moment we shared in the scourching heat and sand of Ngurunit. Indeed it was a wonderful experience.
Labarakwe, I need extra tuition to much your organizational skills.
For Grace, you bridged ages of the old and the young. This is my candid expression; what a man can do a young woman can do it much better. Well done.
God bless Ngurunit
Prof. Florence Indede,
Coordinator Maseno- Linnaeus Cooperation
Chairperson, Department of Kiswahili & Other African Languages,
Maseno University, Kenya.
Thank you very much for a noteworthy conference arranged by YOU and BANK. It definitely enriched my life. It was worthwhile following you that distance. I can understand why you go back to Ngurunit every time, enjoying the nature, and adding years to your life. The hospitality, humbleness, thankfullness and good food of the Kenyans will stay with me, because I never missed home. The happy and disciplined children shows that a mother/ grandmothers must stay at home to raised their children.
Ebbe may you stay forever young!
Abigail H Balie
Huis PJ Du Plessis Strauss en Ceres Dienssentrum
Hi. Ebbe, I salute you for the enjoyable moment we shared in Ngurunit. I experience that Bridging Ages can turn round the forgotten heritage and culture to be the most productive to human kind in sustainable environment. It's the conference that one needs not to miss. The unique lesson of Time Travel.
Thank you and meet you again
Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
Thank you for your leadership, care and blessings. I am back home and trying to reconnect with " normal" life.
Living in Ngurunit for a few days made me highly appreciative of life itself. It has given heritage preservation a new meaning that I will never forget. I am at awe at the excellent collaborative team effort. It is this that made the entire conference a success despite a few challenges.
My personal motto is" Never give up, preserve until you achieve". This came alive in this planning. Sustainability and continuation in the same way will bring resources to this community that is so needed.
I am particularly very impressed with Daniel's community development principle approach. This is the approach that will take this community to further heights in its development, not handouts.
Thank you Andrew for a fantastic job. One BANK member, a teacher at the school next to the site, was our guide to the mountain. I want to send him a personal note of appreciation.
Please keep the communication flowing and update us with the development of the area. Hope to return someday.
Gods Blessings to all that made the conference and our trip a success
Gulshera Khan (Pillay)
Port Shepstone Twinning association
Bridging Ages South Africa
My experiences of the Conference at Ngurunit, Keyna
1. What are my personal experiences of the conference?
As a manager, I have noticed that immense planning had taken place in respect of drawing up of the programme, accommodation and catering. It was a great opportunity for me to meet participants from different countries who gave different perspectives of heritage, education and the environment. The conference stressed the need to record history to better understand what, how and why certain phenomenon happened the way it did. But most importantly it focussed on the now – what can be done NOW to better the lives of people. The organisation of the entire Conference was clear in the sense that BANK members had different roles to play and the different aspects taken care of. This was indeed an experience of a lifetime. The “theory” was somewhat discussed at the Conference followed but appropriate practical experience of being part of the Time Travel which brought to light the type of life that the Samburu , Rendille and other clans led.
2. What will I take home and implement?
I will provide summary feedback to my staff of the Conference I attended. I will make our school excursions more meaningful by taking on the Time travel approach to increase learning. I will formally apply to the Department of Education to allow learners to engage with Time Travel in 2015.
3. Any other comment.
Thanks to Bridging Ages International, BANK, our Port Shepstone Twinning Association who gave me the greatest opportunity to be part of this wonderful experience. I simply loved it. The tours after the conference were also an additional experience to the village, singing well and natural swimming pool up the mountains. The accommodation and toilets was tough and provided another area to talk about. The food and transport was fine inspite of the difficult conditions that prevailed. In a nutshell this was an extremely successful Conference. Congratulations to BANK and most importantly Ebbe including the Swedish Team for serving as the pillar of strength and making sure that everything was going according to plan. Much more can be said but I thought that this was sufficient for now.
Dr B. Gounden
Port Shepstone Twinning Association
Marburg Secondary School
It is with humble regard that am appreciating you and your team from Sweden that you chose to hold the International Conference of Bridging Ages in Ngurunit,(Kenya)
I have really gained knowledge on History and Mathematics of ancient and modern times..imagine our local people are constructing houses by first identifying the epicentre yet they don´t understand it's Mathematics!
Historical sites such as the painted rocks beyond Dara-wells is really amazing!
Ebbe you have really opened Ngurunit to the outside world and most of our Samburu/Rendille communities are appreciating your effort for educating them on the crucial importance of our culture as our heritage.
For me as a teacher trainee I really appreciate the methods used by different presenters to deliver their content at the conference, more so to your co-operation and support to BANK members. Adventure on the way to Isiolo..I cant forget!
Egoji Teachers’ Training College
My experience, though we planned for the conference for some months, I with my colleagues had to struggle to make all people feel at home away from home, which could not have happened were it not for the great understanding and flexibility from all people.
It was the first conference I attended where individual titles were kept aside and all people were equal and that amused me and was awesome that even the community could easily interact with all persons for the barriers were broken.
I was happy with the different ideas put across by the group and as part of County Government Officials the greatest implementation plan is on how to partner with other stakeholders in preservation of heritage sites and documenting of the same which came out clearly as important to the County.
Though am a young scholar I also would echo Prof. Indede's word on publishing the event in a book as a greater idea.
Thank you, shall remain connected.
County Director of Sports
Local heritage sites are rich resources in knowledge and experiences, to learn and appreciate them, take a few days and live with that community.
I wish to take home one thing, In our projects/programmes it will be very good to fully involve the local communities. Projects stand high chances of succeeding if the community "owns" them
National Museums of Kenya
1. What did I learn?
- Culture is a cornerstone for each and every group of people
- Culture is dynamic, even though is the backbone, there are elements of culture which are not relevant in our lives today
- Never judge a book by its cover, the people of Ngurunit are very intelligent, they have a wide knowledge in IKS (indigenous knowledge systems)
- Africa is characterized by curriculum that don’t solve our problems in Africa, it is high time educationist expand, explore and be flexible so that they can come up with solutions which are relevant to our African problems
2. What will I take home?
- Women in other communities need to be emancipated through empowerment like education. Education is a very important element of our development. Female Children need to be taught to be independent, and the culture of self-awareness, self-reliance, must be instilled in them.
- Through heritage we can empower ourselves, develop our selves, heritage is not a barrier to our development, but very instrumental in making communities improve their lives.
- communities need to be broad minded, and think beyond the idea that culture and heritage are there to confine us to our root, but think ahead of that , and design ways that heritage and culture can be used to develop ourselves and bring us peace, improve our economic status as well as our education.
Mpopohomeni Primary School
1. A life touching experience, with the whole Ngurunit community participating. Discussions on projects with friends and colleagues, old and new. And above all, I felt so grateful that the community was kind enough to share their history and culture with us, an amazing experience! I felt almost like a researcher getting the chance to see a hidden world…
2. To take home: The different and creative views of how cultural history and HEE are implemented in different places and countries. How different angles can make great project ideas and how different fields can be used in TT and HEE.
3. Thank you all, you made a fantastic job and I hope the local community will have use of the great things they built for us.
The Regional Council of Ostrobotnia
My experience of the conference
It was an experience and half. That life has many challenges but one is able to overcome them if they remain positive, despite the harsh conditions people of Ngurunit are able to cope with life and I was challenged by their survival skills based purely on Culture and heritage. That we have a lot to learn from our culture and heritage. The Ngurunit people have a challenge on how to manage their environment and resources and hence there is need to be educated about conservation of the environment and how they can use their rich culture and heritage to advance economically. Another experience I learned is that not everyone is as privileged as most of us who were there. Lastly their culture, their daily activities have a lot to do with application of Mathematics; knitting, manyatta construction, name them.
To Take Home:
It is possible to teach Mathematics in a cultural/Historical environment and achieve the National goals at the same time. Therefore it is necessary to find ways of incorporating our culture and heritage in tour curriculum.
Thank you to all the organizers of the Ngurunit Conference. You did a superb job and Kudos to Grace for job well done. Grace made sure that watu wa (pple of) Karen were well catered for. We salute you all.
1. What are my personal experiences of the conference?
What I mainly remember was the big differences around the whole society. It's really instructive to see other cultures so close as we were able to. It provides a perspective on one's own daily life.
2, What will I take home and implement?
What I wrote down at the conference was that I take with me an understanding of how complex and lengthy processes of change are. Everybody must be on the train and want to see change, in the same direction, with the same goals. And the importance of listening to each other.
Kumulus Youth Project
This was a fantastic journey and experience. The meeting with the local people and their hard work to make this conference possible really impressed!
I bring with me a new experience, that one can live in completely different ways. Many thoughts and ideas, Experimental Archaeology and how to improve our Stone Age Time Travels
There was much focus on the location Ngurunit even in the discussions, but how could it be otherwise when we sat in the middle of this stunning landscape
Kalmar läns museum
I'm still affected by great emotions from Ngurunit.
About my experiences - as this conference was subtitled "Ngurunit conference, a chance of a lifetime", it really was. Every moment spent there was a lifetime experience. On the one hand - local people, environment and nature, how local people value their heritage and how richly they use their heritage in their everyday life. Amazing!
On the other hand people who attended the conference - this is a wide world, lots of problems, but every presenter had his/her message - value heritage, keep it and pass it on to next generations. Lots of understanding with different problems.
Take home: It is possible to use several subjects in history teaching. 2in1!
Tartu City Museum
It was wonderful being in Ngurunit.
Experience: It’s important to empower people in a community using local heritage. Hence, each community has heritage that must be preserved.
What I take home: Local sites are important in teaching as they help people shape their future through oral history.
General comment: Kindly consider publishing full papers presented during the conference.
I am deeply impressed with the way the tribal people capitalizes their culture with pride, joy and togetherness; Understanding that they come from two different tribes and now live at ease and peacefully side by side. They have ambitions, creativity and interest in life with no material assets and wealth based on our Western standards.
There were moments in the discussions that I could be frustrated that we have different "language" to discuss pedagogy; as concept, expression, and "school language". This also is a great challenge to try to explain with emotions and engagement how you work. Many persons in the conference talked about working more practical in their historic environment close to the school. But to discuss creative learning processes in all subjects was difficult.
Respect for the elderly but also to listen to young people's often wise reasoning!
To take home and implement:
Dig where you are ... but also look at the outside world. Invite to new experiences both in school and privately.
Continue to work very hard for increased collaboration between teachers in various subjects.
Develop creativity and practical work and a common spirit in the different subjects.
Inform colleagues at Södermöre School about our experiences, and also raise issues about future projects and how we can develop Mathematics more practical at a high level.
We will develop the Time Travel method and make improvements on the concept we have at Voxtorp but become clearer with picking up the theoretical text from the book to practical problem solving in the Time Travel.
It would also be very interesting to implement a Time Travel in the Kalmar harbor in the present time or maybe the future - environmental toxins, efficiency, time savings, load / unload logs / containers etc, energy consumption, distance, cube, water pressure related to our borders in the sea
First I would like to say that to hold a conference with 150 participants in such an inaccessible area with all the logistics, security and accommodation and make it feel like you were on a simple camping at home, that is an achievement. All honor and praise to the organizers.
The conference gave me an insight into other people’s ideas about how teaching is carried out by starting from problem solving and what to do and not to do. In many presentations it was clear that we all have a big common problem to get the Mathematics understandable on a practical level, the applied level, and we need to find ways to increase students' interest and curiosity with the help of "practical Mathematics".
What also struck me that regardless of skill level, teacher oriented or a more individual education, the common problem regardless of country, students have difficulty using Mathematics as a tool.
The hospitality and the warmhearted way people treated you, really touched me and made a deep impact, not least the harsh environment they live in, to provide food, water, arrange houses. I also felt a great humility and admiration of women's contribution to the family and the tribe's survival, in harmony with nature, but on men's conditions.
This was a trip of contrasts, from an orderly and material "abundance" to a school in great need of materials and supplies, which makes it obviously to raise the question of how much money is spent on schools in Kenya? Many questions were raised about the investment in the schools, material, teacher ratio etc
What I remember from the conference is first of all meeting all these people, old and new friends. And a lot of friendly people in Ngurunit in their beautiful costumes
I will take home that we do not need so much stuff. And that people along the road always seemed to be heading somewhere.
I’m happy and grateful that I was able to come to Kenya and Ngurunit, but also a little bit sad. "How can we save the world"? This heavily grazed landscape, it’s difficult to make a living for the pastoralists in northern Kenya.
Kalmar läns museum
During the conference in Kenya, I understood that I absolutely do not think it is ok to sleep in the same room as bats ... In addition, I must say (as always when you are away from the usual environment, but perhaps even more here) I had the opportunity to reflect on my own role and workplace. What do I do? What is possible for us? Which way are we heading? Meanwhile, the trip is also an opportunity to reflect on my own life, what I think is important and I can manage to realize in everyday life.
What I will take home are all the meetings with new friends and colleagues, all stories and human destinies. I also take with me a lot of new, not yet fully finished ideas, on how we can develop our activities at my museum and cooperate with new partners, both in the immediate region and beyond. Above all, I found that everything we experienced during the conference was totally filled with a sense that "anything is possible", which of course is good to be reminded of.
Stundars’ Open Air Museum
Firstly I must confess that I was greatly moved by the way the people of Ngurunit lead their lives daily, surviving in the midst of what at home we would call "primitive lifestyle of a rural area". I admire the survival skills of these people despite the harshest conditions they are live in. Not to mention the rich culture and heritage of the Samburu and Rendille tribes, the manner in which they build the manyattas, their dress code, staple food and ... the list is endless.
I learned that Mathematics and History can be taught in an informal/any setting such building a manyatta, sewing beads, making fire through rubbing of sticks (the traditional way of making fire), through customary marriage, playing indigenous games and also by doing the cultural rituals such as milking or slaughtering a goat and so forth. All of the above-mentioned activities were carried out during the Ngurunit Time Travel.
Seiphemelo Secondary School
I am glad to have had an opportunity to attend Bridging Ages Conference for the first time in Ngurunit. The diverse cultural and natural heritage of the Samburu and Rendile people, the heritage displayed during the time travel at Manyatta enhanced my knowledge as a heritage practitioner.
Lastly, I was very much interested on how time travel can be used to help reduce conflict. Hyrax Hill Prehistoric Site has along history of land dispute with the local community. I will use the Time Travel knowledge to help reduce the conflict.
National Museums of Kenya
I must say, the Bridging Ages conference has with it an amazing spirit. This was my first time to attend, however during the conference i felt a spirit of gentleness from everybody. We had opportunity to learn from each other, live and taste the Samburu and Rendile cultures through Time Travel. The BANK team remained to be exemplary in service, they were there and allover all the time.
The conference really helped me to learn how i can use history as a practical tool for change and development now. The principle of the applied history is perfect. Thanks so very much to everybody !!!
I Sanelisiwe Mthembu as a learner at Mpophomeni High School doing Grade 10, have learnt a lot about the community of Ngurunit.
One important thing I have learnt and took it home with me, is that
- One important thing is that one should respect their elders even if they are not your biological parents.
- We should look after the environment, because it helps us to survive for example, the two well-known tribes of Northern Kenya, which are the Samburu and Rendile, they depend on their animals for survival and the animals depend on the environment, most of the animals feed on trees.
- The community also works together as one, for in nowadays most women say they don’t like sharing their husbands, but in Ngurunit women stay together sharing their husband and they don’t have a problem with it, because they respect each other.
- Samburu women are also in charge of gathering firewood, tend to children and collect water, they are also in charge of maintaining their homes. They also teach girls to obey their husbands and be a better woman in the future.
- Men are set to protect their family when attackers attack both human beings and animals
- As a young person I should share knowledge with older people and be a tree that will bring out beautiful fruits, which represent knowledge, for knowledge is power.
- Working together and building the community helps a lot.
- History is all about today, bringing the past into now and the future
- Older people should start making story telling an interesting thing to do in that way they can teach youngsters the past.
- If we lose one old person we are losing the whole library.
- Language is our identity.
- Using resources around the community can help one survive. Knowing that circumstances are means of survival, for where there is a will there a way.
- Communities can deal with conflict without fighting, but by coming with better solutions or ways of dealing with it. Community members must not think that they are more superior to other community members.
- Young people being exposed to other groups of people that can teach them to appreciate diversity.
- Lastly the community of Ngurunit has showed me to appreciate every little thing that God has given to me, and to respect people.
Mpophomeni High School
Incomprehensible and unreal, the Kenyan countryside takes you by surprise! We travel from a hectic and overcrowded Nairobi to a sandy steppe landscape where you only hear the goats and camels' bells. During the 11 hours the bus takes us through small townships and villages teeming with people. A lush landscape slowly turns to sand and semi-desert. When the tarmac road ends and becomes a dirt road, we see only huts. Along the way we meet a few zebras, giraffes, camels, ostriches and thousands of goats and their herders.
We are heading to the Bridging Ages annual conference which is based in Ngurunit in Marsabit County in Northern Kenya. The theme is "Education, Heritage and Community Building." The bus is full of participants with big expectations, museum curators and educators from the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as participants from other parts of Kenya, Uganda, Italy, South Africa and Nigeria.
After the long journey we finally arrive in Ngurunit where we are greeted by children and adults from the Samburu tribe in colorful traditional costumes with amazing adornments singing "Karibu, Karibu" - Welcome. At the camp site of huts and tents, where we will stay, we are met by the young dancers and warriors, "Morans", who greets us welcome with songs and dances. Nobody is left untouched. In Ngurunit lives 2-3000 people, people live in huts. They are nomads and pastoralists with livestock and hold firmly to their traditions. There is no electricity and almost no running water. Daytime temperatures often reach 35 degrees or more and the people are mostly dressed in their traditional costumes. It has never been any international conference here before; but they still have the courage to drive and organize a
The conference's main theme revolves around how a site can be developed and still preserves the culture. Can culture be a driving force in development? How to work together in the best way and how can school and the local community cooperate? Many examples are presented from different parts of the world, without power points, and then discussed in groups. The conference Time Travel goes to the present time. We visit a home, a Manyatta, where the story is that two young persons are leaving for the city to study We are locals and visitors, giving them advice on what to remember and what to take with them. Present time feels like the Iron Age, if we look at the material and perhaps also the intangible culture. The landscape with huts for different functions, cattle in bomas and the tools, make us think about life at least 1000 years back in time. Maybe even traditions and family was similar?
After three conference days and one more day full of activities, we leave Ngurunit just before dawn. Soon the sun will rise behind the mountains and the shepherds come with goats and camels to the water holes. Life goes on as usual. But something has happened to us, the meeting between academics from countries far away and the locals have changed us. The bus is quiet; we are astonished of the warm people we've met. How can they live in this simple way with their strong traditions, seemingly untouched by the outside world? In the village they can continue walking with proud bearing. They have successfully completed the first international conference in the whole of Northern Kenya. They certainly look with confidence to the future and continuing cooperation with others.
Kalmar läns museum
- Time travels re-done at the kisumu railways station 45 years later
- Updated: Swedish Exhibition Agency videos from the 2014 BA conference
- Declaration from the Bridging Ages Conference in Ngurunit 2014
- Abstracts from the conference
- Conference programme
- Photos from the conference
- More photos from the conference
- Even more photos from the conference
- Ngurunit conference, a chance of a life time.
- Conference in Ngurunit, northern Kenya 30 April 2011
- Life Mathematics
- Mathematics in the Historic Environment
- Bridging Ages Conference in Ngurunit, Kenya, 26-28 August 2014
- ”Education and Community Building”
- “Education, Heritage and Community Building” Draft program and more
- Karibu Kenya Welcome to Kenya!
- Education and Community Building Mathematics in the Historic Environment
- Mathematics and History together Time Travels at Kisumu Railway Station, Kenya
- Comments from delegates of the Bridging Ages Conference in Ngurunit 26-29 August 2014
- Comments from the Ngurunit conferenece
- Bridging Ages Western Kenya
- Time Travel event at the Maseno Maths Camp, Kenya
- Bridging Ages Kenya Launch
- South Africa
- Åland Islands